Swarna Makshik Bhasma is an Ayurvedic medicine, prepared from an ore of Copper and Iron Pyrite. It is used in Ayurvedic treatment of diabetes, piles, skin diseases etc. This medicine should only be taken strictly under medical supervision.
Table of Contents
- It has bitter, sweet principles, aphrodisiac and anti aging properties.
- It is useful in the treatment of diabetes, helminthiasis (Intestinal worms), eye diseases, urinary tract disorders, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, anorexia, insomnia, inflammation, poison, etc.
Effect on Tridosha – Balances Kapha and Pitta.
Chemical composition: Copper pyrite and Iron pyrite – Cu2S, Fe2S3
125 – 250 mg once or twice a day before or after food or as directed by Ayurvedic doctor.
As per the text book Rasa Tarangini – the dose is 1/2 – 2 Gunja = 60 mg – 250 mlg, based on once Bala – strength. (Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, 21/29, Motilal Banarasidas, Varanasi, 2004.)
With western medicines
Seek your doctor’s advice if you are taking this product along with other western (allopathic/modern) medicines. Some Ayurvedic herbs can interact with modern medicine.
If both Ayurvedic and allopathic medicines are advised together, then it is best to take allopathic medicine first, wait for 30 minutes and then, after a gap of 15 – 30 minutes, take Ayurvedic medicine or as directed by the physician.
Can this be used while taking Homeopathic medicine?
Yes. This product does not react with homeopathic medicine.
With supplements like multivitamin tablets, Omega 3 fatty acids etc?
Yes. Generally, this product goes well with most of the dietary supplements. However, if you are taking more than one product per day, please consult your doctor for an opinion.
There are no recorded side effects with this medicine.
It should be taken under strict medical supervision. Take this medicine only if your Ayurveda doctor has prescribed it to you.
Store in a cool dry place, in an air tight container, away from direct sunlight.
Use this medicine only till the prescribed time and in the prescribed dose only.
Seek your doctor’s advice for its usage during pregnancy, lactation and in children.
Keep out of reach and sight of children.
Swarn Bhasma preparation, ingredients, how to make:
It is prepared from purified Swarna Makshik. There are many different methods of preparation. Any one method can be used. Here is one such method.
Purified Swarnamakshika is boiled with lemon juice, dried. It is again ground with lemon juice, made into cakes. Heated in a closed container in absence of air in 500 – 600 degree Celsius. This process is repeated for 10 times to obtain its Bhasma (Calx).
Reference and Research
Rasa Tarangini 21/19-20
The references about Swarna Makshika are found in ancient Ayurvedic texts like Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Ashtanga Sangraha etc.
Research: Physico-chemical characterization
Divya Pharmacy, Dabur, Baidyanath, Shree Dhootapapeshwar Ltd
Makshik Basam For skin diseases:
Makshika Bhasma is administered along with Cow urine for the treatment of skin diseases.
Rasa – taste – Sweet, bitter and astringent
Ushna Veerya – Hot Potency
Laghu – light to digest
Katu Vipaka – undergoes pungent bio transformation after digestion.
Yogavahi – acts as a catalyst
Balya – improves strength and immunity
Rasayana – anti aging, causes cell and tissue rejuvenation
Diabetes, urinary tract disorders – Meha
Haemorrhoid – Arsha
Depletion of body tissues, weight loss, tuberculosis – Kshaya
Skin diseases – Kushta
Fever – Jwara
Anti ageing, useful in senile disorders – Jara vyadhi visha nashaka
Anemia, early stage of skin disorders – Pandu
Jaundice – Kamala IBS, sprue – Grahani
Abdominal colic pain – Shoola
Hiccups – Hikka
Ulcers, wounds – Vrana
Anupana (co drink for various disorders)
I did not get specific reference of different Anupanas.
In Bhaishajya Ratnavali, there is quotation of Salsaradi Gana Kashaya – as Anupana for Swarna Makshika.
For diabetes etc disorders, it is usually given along with respective disease curing Kashayas.
A few examples can be –
Diabetes – Nisha Katakadi kashaya
Skin disorders – Maha Manjishtadi Kashaya
Cough, cold, Asthama – Dashamoola Katutraya Kashaya and so on.
In India currently Copper mines are situated in Khetri Copper Project (Rajasthan) and Simhabhum of Bihar.
this medicine habit forming? Does it create dependence? Can we stop it after a
few months of usage?
This medicine is not habit forming. After using for the prescribed period, your doctor would gradually decrease the dose and eventually stop it. Follow your doctor’s instructions for gradual decrease of dose and stopping. Usually it does not cause any ill effects.
It is the principal ore of copper, yielding up to 33%.
The importance of Swarn Makshik is well explained in Rasa Rathna Samuchaya, that it is said as Prana of parada, it is a Rasayana, a best Vrishya and it cures all the diseases. (Acharya Vagbhatta, Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, 2/80, Edited by Dattatreya Anantha Kulkarni, Meharchand Lachmandas Publications, New Delhi, 1998.)
It is called SwarnaMakshik because of its appearance like gold (Acharya Yasodhara, Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara, 5/121, Siddhipradha Hindi Commentary by Sri Siddhinandan Mishra, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2004.)
Tapija, Tapya, Tapta, Tapee samudbhavam
As it occurs in the banks of river Tapati or Tapti it is called Tapija (Acharya Vagbhatta, Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, 2/ 82, Edited by Dattatreya Anantha Kulkarni, Meharchand Lachmandas Publications, New Delhi, 1998.)
Hema Makshika, Swarna Makshika, Dhatu Makshika, Suvarnamakshikam
Garudah, Pakshee, Madhudhatu, Madhu Makshika
Brihadvarna – having clear colours
There are two mythological origins of Makshika are explained in almost all Rasa Shastra texts.
Lord Krishna went in to Yoganidra after the completion of his role in Mahabharatha. A hunter mistaking him as a deer pierced the sole of his foot by an arrow. Because of the injury, blood drops fell down from this wound and they were looking like Niimba fruits. They gave rise to the stones of Makshika. (Rasarnava, 7/3 – 4, Rasa Chandrika commentary by Dr. Indradev Tripathi, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series, Varanasi, 2001.)
According to Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, Lord Vishnu created Swarna Makshika, which was originated in Sameru Mountain, at the banks of river Tapee,Cheena desha and Yavana desha. During Madhava masa due to sunrays Makshika shines like gold and identified in these places. (Acharya Vagbhatta, Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, 2/ 77, Edited by Dattatreya Anantha Kulkarni, Meharchand Lachmandas Publications, New Delhi, 1998.)
Kautilya Artha Shastra:
In Kautilya Artha Shastra (Kautilya, Artha Sastra, 2nd Adhikarana 12th Chapter, Chaukhambha Vidhyabhavan, Varanasi, 2006.), he says about the Copper mines and explains about 4 types of Copper ores, Pingala, Harita, Patala and Lohita. Later in Upanishad kala also we can trace lot of discussions on Tamra. In Yajnyavalkya smriti, he says when Tamra is melted over fire we can see loss of weight of about 5 tolas. Slowly the knowledge about metals developed in later periods and they occupied unique place in the treatment aspect.
Charaka has administered Swarna Makshika successfully in the treatment of Kushta and Pandu (Acharya Charaka, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana 7/71, 16/82, Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, 2000.)
Sushruta has advised to use Makshika in the treatment of Madhumeha. And it is also successfully used in the treatment of Prameha and Pandu (Acharya Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Chikitsasthana 11th and 12th Chapter, Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, 2000.)
Detailed description of Makshika utpatti and its use as Rasayana is found in Uttaratantra 49th Chapter (Acharya Vagbhatta, Ashtanga Sangraha Uttara Tantra, 49th Chapter, CCRAS, New Delhi, 2007..
Availability of ore
Makshika which was obtained from Kanyakubja, was just like gold and was called as Swarna Makshika. The one which was obtained from the banks of river Tapee was called as Rajata Makshika. It was inferior in quality with pashanabahulata and it was just like Pancha Varna Swarna.
Chalcopyrite is the most abundant Copper bearing mineral containing nearly equal parts of copper (34.5%), iron (30.5%) and sulphur (35%). Chalcopyrite is mined and used as an ore of copper. In fact chalcopyrite is the most widely occurring copper mineral. Chalcopyrite is found together with other sulphides.
Major deposits of Chalcopyrite occur in Canada, Japan, England, Spain and United States. In India it is found in Bihar, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. In Ayurvedic texts it is mentioned to be found in Sumeru Mountains, across the Tapi River in Kanouja, Bhutan and China.
Swarna Makshika Vargikarana
Different authors have given their individual opinions in the classification of Makshika under Maharasa, Uparasa or Upadhatu depending on their experiences and thoughts. Some of them considered Makshika as Prana of Parada hence it was put under Maharasa. Some thought it as less significant in parada prayoga and hence put under Uparasa and Upadhatu.
Swarn Maksik is grouped under Maharasa by Rasarnava, Rasendra Chintamani, Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Rasendra Chudamani, Rasa Jala Nidhi.
It is grouped under Uparasa by Ananda Kanda, Rasa Manjari
It is grouped under Upadhatu by Rasendra Sara Sangraha, Ayurveda Prakasha, Rasa Tarangini and Parada Samhita.
Types of Swarna Makshika
As per Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Makshika is of two varieties viz. –
Swarna Makshika and
Rajata Makshika (Acharya Vagbhatta, Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, 2/81, Edited by Dattatreya Anantha Kulkarni, Meharchand Lachmandas Publications, New Delhi, 1998.)
Swarna Makshika bearing golden tints was found in Kanyakubja.
The other variety called as Roupya Makshika, which resembles Panchavarna Swarna contains much of stone was found in the banks of river Tapti. It was of inferior quality.
Types Based On Shape
According to Rasa Jala Nidhi (Bhudeb Mukharjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Second Volume, Chapter – 1, P. No – 62, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2004),
They are also subdivided in to four classes according to their shape due to the difference in the location of soil in which they were found.
Round like Kadamba
Like shells of Shuktika
Having the shape of fingers (elongated and round)
Like flakes of ash
Of these varieties, one which is yellowish is called Swarna Makshika and it is superior.
Based On Colour
According to Rasa Jala Nidhi (Bhudeb Mukharjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Second Volume, Chapter – 1, P. No – 62, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2004),
Ananda Kanda mentions two varieties (Ananda Kanda, Kriyakarana Vishranthi, First Ullasa, P.No -532, Saraswathi Mahal Library, Thanjavur, 1952.)
The name chalcopyrite is derived from the Greek word Chalkos that means Copper i.e. chalcopyrite is the copper containing mineral. Pyite is derived from the Greek word pyros which means fire in reference to the fact that pyrite ignites when heated in air.
Although chalcopyrite is usually written as CuFeS2, a better representation would be Cu2S Fe2S3 reflecting the fact that copper in this mineral is mainly present in the cuprous state while iron is mainly in the ferric state. Chalcopyrite or copper pyrite looks like and is easily confused with pyrite, FeS2. Chalcopyrite is referred to as fool’s gold because of its bright golden colour. But real gold is more buttery yellow and is malleable and ductile.
As an ore of copper, the yield of chalcopyrite is rather low in terms of atoms per molecule. It has only 25% when compared to other copper minerals such as chalcocite,
Cu2S – 67%,
Cu2O – 67%,
covelete CuS – 50%.
However, the large quantities and widespread distribution of chalcopyrite is a common mineral and is found in almost all sulphide deposits. Fine crystals of chalcopyrite have a unique character and can add to anyone’s collection.
Structure And Physical Properties
Chalcopyrite is brittle and can be easily powdered. The cut surface has golden yellow dots or lines. When Chalcopyrite is rubbed, the hands get blackish stains. It burns on fire with white fumes and emits smell like Sulphur. It is insoluble in water.
Colour – Brassy yellow, tarnishes toirridiscent blues, greens yellows and purples.
Lusture – Metallic
Transparency – Crystals are opaque.
Crystal Structure – Tetragonal bar 42 m
Crystal habits – are predominantly disphenoid, which is like two opposing wedges and resembles a tetrahedron crystal sometimes twinned. Also commonly massive and some times botryoidal cleavage is rather poor in one direction.
Fracture – Conchoidal, brittle
Hardness – 3.5 – 4
Specific Gravity – 4.2
Streak – Dark green
Bonding – Covalent
Melting point – 880oC
Suitable characteristic features:
Swarna Makshika, which on being broken to pieces presents a surface with bright golden tints, with a rather black interior, is superior to the common variety. This variety of Makshika is called “Brihad Varna” or having a superior colour. (Sri Nithyanatha Siddha, Rasa Ratnakara, Rasa Khanda, Rasa Chandrika commentary by Dr. Indradev Tripathi, P. No – 51, Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prakashan, 1985.)
Swarna Makshika has the appearance of gold, devoid of angles, heavy and leaves a black impression when rubbed on the palm (Acharya Bindu, Rasa Paddhati, Maharasa Prakarana, Sloka No – 79, P.No – 100, Siddhipradha Hindi Commentary by Sri Siddhinandan Mishra, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2005).
The Swarna Makshika which is superior in quality should have the following characteristics: gold like complexion, heaviness, softness a little blue tint and causing gold like impression when rubbed on a piece of touch stone (Kasha) (16. Pandit Dattatreya Chaube, Brihad Rasa Raja Sundara, P. No – 102, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2000).
Khara, Alpabhara with kona and which shines like loha should not be used for the preparation of medicine (17. Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, 21/5, Motilal Banarasidas, Varanasi, 2004.).
Apakwa Swarna Makshika Dosha
If Sodhana of Swarna Makshika was not carried out properly or bhasma was not prepared properly or if it possesses chandrika it produces various disorders.
Signs of consuming non – purified Swarna Makshigam:
Agnimandya – low digestion strength
Balanasha – lack of strength
Vrana – Ulcers, wounds
Vibandha – constipation
Gatraruk – bodyache
Marana – death
Vishtambha – constipation
Dourbalya – weakness
Aksiroga – eye disorder
Kushta – skin diseases
Gandamala – cervical lymphadenitis
Halimaka – higher stage of jaundice
Vata Prakopa – Increase of Vata Dosha
Andhya – blindness
Kshaya – depletion of body tissues, weight loss, tuberculosis
Krimi – worm infestation
Vanti – vomiting
Remedy for consumption of non purified Svarnamakshigam:
Kulatha kwatha – horse gram decoction or
Dadima kwatha – pomegranate decoction (Pandit Dattatreya Chaube, Brihad Rasa Raja Sundara, P. No – 107, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2000.)
Different methods have been adopted for Sodhana of Swarna Makshika like, Swedana, Pachana, Nirvapana and Putapaka method.
Sodhana By Swedana:
Makshika is powdered and tied in a cloth. It is subjected to swedana with kashaya or swarasa of vanya meghanada and shali (shaka visesha) by dolayantra vidhi. The Makshika which is collected at the bottom is said as suddha (Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, 21/12 – 14, Motilal Banarasidas, Varanasi, 2004.)
Makshika is kept in sooranakanda and swedana should be done in kulatha kwatha, kodrava kwatha, naramootra, amlavetasa and katutrika. Again pachana is done in rambhadrava (Ananda Kanda, Kriyakarana Vishranthi, First Ullasa, P.No – 533, Saraswathi Mahal Library, Thanjavur,1952.).
Swedana in Naramootra, kulatha kwatha, vetasa, amlavarga with Tankana and Trikatu by Dolayantra vidhi for one day (Sri Nithyanatha Siddha, Rasa Ratnakara, Rasa Khanda, Rasa Chandrika commentary by Dr. Indradev Tripathi, P. No – 51, Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prakashan, 1985.).
According to Rasendra Purana, it is subjected to swedana for two hours in a mixture of Matulunga and Eranda Taila
It is subjected to swedana in Dola yantra or Swedani yantra with kadali kanda swarasa or karkoti kanda swarasa (Acharya Bindu, Rasa Paddhati, Maharasa Prakarana, Sloka No – 79, P.No – 100, Siddhipradha Hindi Commentary by Sri Siddhinandan Mishra, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2005.)
Swedana is done in Dolayantra with beejapoora rasa and saindhava lavana for one day (Ananda Kanda, Kriyakarana Vishranthi, First Ullasa, P.No – 534, Saraswathi Mahal Library, Thanjavur, 1952.)
Makshika is powdered and placed in the kalka of jalini and meghanada, swedana is carried out by dola yantra vidhi in kulatha kwatha (Ananda Kanda, Kriyakarana Vishranthi, First Ullasa, P. No – 534, Saraswathi Mahal Library, Thanjavur, 1952.)
Sodhana By Pachana:
Swarna Makshika churna 3 parts, Saindhava lavana 1 part and Nimbu swarasa is taken in an iron vessel covered with sarava, it is subjected to teevragni till it attains sindhuravarna and then allowed to cool by it-self. It should be stirred well with the help a lohadarvi in the middle of the heating process (Bhudeb Mukharjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Second Volume, Chapter – 1, P. No – 67, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2004.)
Kadali kanda swarasa is added to fine powder of Swarna Makshika and heated in teevragni for one hour. Nimbu swarasa is added to the fine powder of makshika and heated in an iron vessel in teevragni till it attains red colour like lotus. The procedure can be repeated for 2 – 3 days (Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, 21/18, Motilal Banarasidas, Varanasi, 2004.)
Makshika is taken in a vessel and Eranda taila and nimbu swarasa is added together and heate till the taila gets dried or up to 48 minutes and again heated in kadali kanda swarasa (Acharya Vagbhatta, Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, 2/83, Edited by Dattatreya Anantha Kulkarni, Meharchand Lachmandas Publications, New Delhi, 1998.)
Sodhana By Nirvapana:
Swarna Makshika is heated and dipped in nimbu swarasa and this procedure is repeated for 21 times (Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, 21/15 – 16, Motilal Banarasidas, Varanasi, 2004.)
Swarna Makshika is heated and dipped in Triphala kashaya for 7 times (Acharya Vagbhatta, Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, 2/83, Edited by Dattatreya Anantha Kulkarni, Meharchand Lachmandas Publications, New Delhi, 1998)
Makshika becomes purified, if it s heated and immersed in each of the following taila, takra, kulatha kwatha and triphala kwatha (Bhudeb Mukharjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Second Volume, Chapter – 1, P. No – 70, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2004.
Sodhana By Putapaka:
The root of shigru is rubbed with the juice of agasti flower followed by pashana bheda. Then Swarna Makshika is triturated with the above paste and made in to ball and dried. It is subjected to heat in an andha musha with the help of 20 upalas. The process is repeated for six times (Ananda Kanda, Kriyakarana Vishranthi, First Ullasa, P. No – 534, Saraswathi Mahal Library, Thanjavur, 1952.)
Marana With Parada:
Shuddha Swarna Makshika is taken and 1/8th part of Suddha Hingula is added and nimbu swarasa bhavana is given. Chakrikas prepared, dried and subjecte to puta. Sadananda Sharma advises to give 8 putas by adding same quantity of suddha hingula in each puta (Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, 21/23 -25, Motilal Banarasidas, Varanasi, 2004.)
According to Rasayana Sara, Kajjali is prepared first with equal quantity of Hingulotha Parada and Suddha Gandhaka. This Kajjali is mixed with Suddha Swarna Makshika. Here the paka is done by Kupipakvavidhi. Sindura is obtained from Kanta pradesha and Bhasma from tala. Nimbu swarasa is the bhavana dravya used here.
Marana With Mooliika:
Swarna Makshika which is purified by nimbu swarasa is subjected to 10 Gajaputas by giving bhavana with nimbu swarasa. A red coloured Makshika bhasma is obtained (Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, 21/19 -20, Motilal Banarasidas, Varanasi, 2004.).
Suddha Swarna Makshika is given bhavana with Kumari swarasa, chakrikas prepared and dried. This is subjected to Kukkuta puta for 27 times (Bhudeb Mukharjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Second Volume, Chapter – 1, P. No – 73, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2004.)
Suddha swarna Makshika is given bhavana with kulatha kashaya or takra or ajamootra and heated in a vessel and turned all the while by means of a ladle (Rasa Tantra Sara va Siddha Prayoga Sangraha)
Maksheeka Marana With Gandhaka:
Makshika becomes bhasma when it is given bhavana with matulunga swarasa. Equal quantity of Suddha Gandhaka is added to it and sealed in a musha. This is then subjected to Varahaputa for 10 times (Vagbhatta, Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, 2/84, Edited by Dattatreya Anantha Kulkarni, Meharchand Lachmandas Publications, New Delhi, 1998.)
Suddha Swarna Makshika is added with 1/4th quantity of Suddha Gandhaka, given bhavana with eranda taila and subjected to 8 Gajaputas (Acharya Shalinatha, Rasa Manjari, P. No – 40 – 41, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 1995.)
Suddha Swarna Makshika is added with 1/4th quantity of Suddha Gandhaka, given bhavana with eranda taila and subjected to Gajaputa by keeping paddy husk above and below (Pandit Dattatreya Chaube, Brihad Rasa Raja Sundara, P. No – 102, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2000.)
Suddha Gandhaka 1/4th quantity is added to Suddha Swarna Makshika, given bhavana with matulunga swarasa and subjected to 3 Gajaputas (Acharya Bindu, Rasa Paddhati, Maharasa Prakarana, Sloka No – 79, P.No – 100, Siddhipradha Hindi Commentary by Sri Siddhinandan Mishra, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2005).
Amritikarana Of Svarna Makshiga
The drug processed in this method turns to amruthatulya and produces same effect in the body. It also removes the remaining doshas in the bhasmas. By subjecting to puta, bhasma becomes teekshna, ushna, ruksha etc. To nullify these and produce snigdha, soumya and sheeta gunas in the bhasma, amritikarana is carried out. Amritikarana is essential for Swarna Makshika because it contains tamra.
According to Rasendra Chinthamani, The Bhasma is taken in an iron pan and heated. Panchamrita drugs are added to it and closed with a lid. Heat it till it becomes nirdhooma. It is then removed on the next day. The colour becomes black. It is again ground with triphala kashaya and subjected to varahaputa. The process is repeated for 5 times and it attains red colour.